EARLY ISLAM AND ITS DIVERSITY
Were all the early Muslims like Muslims today. In the past there were Ahl-Al-Kalaam and Ahl-Al-Hadeeth. The Mu'tazilah, Ash'ariyyah, Ahl-Ar-ray', the Khawaarij and the mutakkalimun were apart of the Ahl-Al-Kalam who gave preference to the interaction between the Quran and their 3aql (logic processes) over any narrations extraneous to the Quran.
The Ahl-Alhadeeth are what developed into the 4 Sunni schools of thought and the Zahirites, making narrations extraneous to the Quran equally obligatory on Muslims as the Quran, based on the authenticity of Isnaads, although they did this in different ways. Then there are the varous Shia groups, many who still exist today like the Isma'ilis, the Zaydis and the 12 Imamers. Extreme Shi'ite are A'lawis and Druzes. We also have many Sufi groups, some of whom in essence are Shia, others Sunni and others neither. If Africa the Qadariyyiah, Tijaniyyah, Samaniyyah, Baye Falls, Muridoon and others are very common. The Ibadhis/Ibadis of Algeria and Oman are the last, moderate remnants of the Kharijites.
What of the diversity of early Islam and Islam period? What are their different takes on the legalities of Islam and the practice of the religion in general?
Who were these people? What did they believe and what effect did they have on Islam?